Jeroen Temperman Associate Professor Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands

Jeroen Temperman is associate professor of International Public Law at the Erasmus University Rotterdam, lecturing in international human rights law. He is also the editor-in-chief of Religion & Human Rights: An International Journal. His research is chiefly focused on freedom of religion or belief, the right to education, freedom of expression and extreme speech, religion–state relationships, and equality. He has authored, co-authored and edited several books on international human rights law, including State–Religion Relationships and Human Rights Law: Towards a Right to Religiously Neutral Governance (2010); Human Rights, co-authored with Kristin Henrard (2011); The Lautsi Papers: Multidisciplinary Reflections on Religious Symbols in the Public School Classroom (2012); and Het sociale gezicht van Europa: een mensenrechtenperspectief (a book on social rights within the European Union, co-authored with Rob Buitenweg and Kathalijne Buitenweg, 2013). In 2014 he was awarded a Fulbright Scholarship, facilitating a visiting professorship at Washington College of Law, American University, Washington, D. C.

Prohibitions of incitement in international law: The case of religion

160 States have, by ratifying the Unnited Nations International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, pledged to ‘prohibit by law’ any advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence (Article 20, paragraph 2, ICCPR). The aim of this presentation is to conceptualize the prohibition of incitement in international law. What is the actus reus of ‘incitement’? And how to prove incitement? Does it require intention? And is content or context decisive?